What is the Computer Architecture and it’s types?

Do you know what computer architecture is? There are many such questions which often bother many people, as our body is structured and one part is connected to another, in the same way computer also has many parts and those parts are connected to each other.

As in our body one part is connected to another which tells what our body has to do? In the same way, each part of the computer tells the other part what work it has to do? Today we will know in this article that what is Computer Architecture and its types (What is Computer Architecture) we will know in detail today.

What is Computer Architecture?

The various components of the computer and the relationship between them is called the computer architecture. Almost all computers have the same structure.

How many parts does a computer have?

There are three main parts of a computer, which are as follows

  • Input/Output Unit
  • Central Processing Unit
  • Memory Unit Input Unit
What is the Computer Architecture and it's types.

Through Input Device, we input our data or instruction or program into the computer. Which is accepted by the CPU and stored in the appropriate place in the memory. When needed, ALU takes data and instruction from memory itself, where processing is done according to the order of the control unit and the results are sent to the output device or again kept in memory. All other units work under the control of the control unit.

Input Unit

Input units are the hardware that sends data to the computer. Without an input unit, a computer becomes a display unit that looks like a TV, from which the user cannot do any work.

The function of input unit is that whatever data or instruction we give to it in our language. By converting it into binary code, it is sent to the computer (ie CPU).

The following functions are performed by the Input Unit:

  • Reads or accepts the instructions and data given by the user.
  • It converts the instructions and data into a form that is accepted by the computer.
  • It sends these instructions and data in converted form to the computer for further processing.

Output Unit

The units used to display data and instructions as a result are called output units. The function of output units is that the results obtained from the computer are in the Binay code. Provides us by changing the appropriate Symbols or Language and Image for us.

The following functions are performed by the Output Unit.

  • It accepts the results given by the computer, which are in the form of binary codes and which are difficult for us to understand.
  • Ttransforms the results given in the form of those codes into a form that is read or understandable by us.
  • It presents or prints the results to us in an altered form.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

CPU is the processing unit and part of the computer in which Arithmetic and Logical Operations are performed and instructions are decoded and executed. The CPU controls the entire operation of the computer. The CPU is called the brain of the computer, The CPU of a micro computer is also called a microprocessor. It controls the external and internal devices of the computer.

Following are the main functions of CPU:

  • It transfers the instructions and data from the main memory to the registers.
  • Executes instructions sequentially.
  • When required, it transfers the output data from the registers to the main memory.

Following are the main three components of CPU :-

Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU)

As its name suggests, all kinds of numerical operations (Add, Subtractin, Multily and Divide) and comparisons (telling two numbers which one is smaller or bigger or both are equal) for CPU, this unit are done in. This unit is made up of many such circuits, in which, on sending any two numbers from one side, their Sum, Difference, Product or Quotient is received from the other side. In this, all the actions are done in the Binary System. To temporarily store or keep the results of the numbers and actions received, it contains many special bytes, which are called resistors.


Register is a device or means in which data is stored. Registers is a very fast temporary storage device, Registers occupy the highest position in the memory hierarchy and give the CPU the fastest way to access any data. Registers are widely used to provide the fastest speed to the implementation of a program.

Control Unit

The work of this part is the most important. It monitors the functions of all parts of the computer and sends appropriate commands to coordinate them. Its most important and first function is that the program we want to follow, it reads it from memory, analyzes it and makes it follow. To ensure that an instruction is followed, it issues proper instructions to all other parts of the computer.

For example, memory can be ordered to store some data at some place or to pick up (read) it from there and send it to the ALU. It is the responsibility of this unit to follow the programs properly by making coordination in all the parts of the computer.

In this way all the units of CPU perform the tasks specified by the user with mutual cooperation. For this whenever any input is required. It is taken from an input unit and the results or messages that come are sent to an output unit.


CPU is the brain of a computer. All kinds of calculations and processing are done inside this, it is also called Processor. The processor which is used for micro computers is called microprocessor. By this all work is done. By the way, sometimes a separate Math Processor is also installed for complex calculations.

Microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic goods made on a semiconductor integrated circuit. Which does all the work of a Central Processing Unit (CPU). It is the heart and brain of the computer. It understands only machine language.

  • The Intel 4004 was the first microprocessor to house all the components of a CPU on a single chip.
  • Some important microprocessors are named. – Intel Dual Core and Pentium IV etc.

Memory Unit

Memory is the part of the computer that stores data and instructions. Computer memory provides one of the main functions of modern computers i.e. Information Retention. this | It is a part of the computer’s CPU and together with it makes up the whole computer. ,

The memory unit has two parts:

(i) Primary Memory (ii) Secondary Memory

What is Primary Memory

It is also called internal or main memory. this | directly connected to the CPU. This means that the CPU continuously reads and follows the instructions stored in it. Along with this, any data on which work is being done from Activity is also stored in it.

In primary memory, the programs running at any time and their input data and output are temporarily stored for some time. , As soon as their need is over, they can be removed and other data or programs can be kept in that place. The size of primary memory is limited but their speed is very fast.

The following information is kept in the primary memory:

All the data to be processed and the necessary instructions to process it, which are obtained from the input sources.

  • Intermediate result of processing.
  • Final result of processing.
  • They are kept safe till they are sent to the output device.

There are two types of primary memory.

(i) Random Access Memory

(ii) Read Only Memory

Random Access Memory (RAM)

It is called RAM in short. This memory is on a chip, which is made up of a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS). We can choose any location of this memory and use it to store any data directly or read data from it.

This memory would have been made up of such registers and the circuits connected to them. From which it is possible to transfer data to and from there. Each such location has a fixed address. With the help of which we can reach that location. We can use the Registers or Locations of this memory whenever needed. That’s why it is named Random Access Memory. The information filled in RAM is temporary and as soon as the computer’s power is turned off, all those information are destroyed.

Those programs and data are kept in RAM, which the CPU can find and get from there. This memory is also divided into several sections, so that the information kept in it can be organized and found. Each such section has a fixed address. With the help of a data bus, we can extract any information from RAM or store information in it.

Instruction Format

Instruction is understood by the computer only in the form of 0 and 1 which is called Machine Language. A computer program is a set of instructions that detail the steps required to complete a task.

Two types of inputs are required for any processor to function.

Data and Instruction

Instruction tells the computer which action should be taken to perform a particular task. Any instruction can be divided into two parts.

Operation or Op-code and Operand Operations are those actions, which are performed and there are operands on which the operand is performed. For example, +, here A and B are operands and ‘+’ is operation.

Instruction of Cycle

The control unit is also called the vascular system of the computer. All commands pass through the control unit. The processing that happens here is called Instruction Cycle.

The entire instruction cycle consists of the following four phases.

1. Fetching

In this step, the instruction is fetched from the memory and brought into the Introduction Register (a circuit capable of holding an instruction), so that the instruction can be decoded and executed.

2. Decoding

Decode the instruction given in it i.e. to interpret the given instruction.

3. Read the Effective Address

If the instruction has an indirect address, then reading that address from memory.

4. Execution

In this instruction has to be executed. Out of the given steps, Steps 1 and 2 are same for all instructions and called as FUNCH cycle and Steps 3 and 4 are different for all instructions and are called Execute Cycle.

Read Only Memory (ROM)

It is called ROM in short. This is the memory in which the data is already filled and which we can read only. We cannot remove or replace it. In fact, while making a ROM chip, some necessary programs and data are written in it, which are permanent. Even when the computer’s power is turned off, the information stored in the ROM chip remains secure. ROM Chips are used in all types of electronic components; For example, it is done in calculator, video game, digital camera etc.

ROM memory is used a lot in most personal computers. Often such information is stored in these which are permanent and important or they are program stored. which do not require replacement; For example, the program to boot the computer. Basic Input-Output System (BIOS) was also stored in ROM memory in old personal computers. Which acted as a translator between the PC’s hardware and operating system.

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What is Secondary Memory ?

This type of memory is outside the CPU, so it is also called external or secondary memory. Due to computer memory and most of the information kept in it is destroyed when the power is turned off, neither we can increase it as desired nor can we store any information in it permanently. So we have to use auxiliary memory.

Its price is comparatively less and the capacity to store data is very high. It has only one drawback that it takes a lot of time to write (ie store) and read (ie receive) data in these mediums. That’s why we store such information in it, which is to be kept safe for a long time and which is not needed continuously.

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Auxiliary memory is used for backup. when | If we do not need any data urgently, then it can be sent through a magnetic medium; For example, copying on Floppy Disk or Magnetic Tape is saved separately. This is often done to free up the hard disk, so that such data can be filled on it, which is needed and there is no space on the disc. The data stored in the backup tool can be reloaded or copied to the hard disk whenever needed.

In early computers, punched cards, paper tapes and magnetic tapes were used for auxiliary storage. But nowadays mainly magnetic discs are used for this work which are convenient in many ways.


The most important of the various boards of a computer system is the Motherboard or Main Board. In the year 1974, since the beginning of the manufacture of microcomputers, all their essential electronic components are mounted on a single printed circuit board called the motherboard. MotherBoards are a complex electronic system; For example, the central or main circuit board of a modern computer is. It is also called Mainboard, Baseboard, System Board or Logic Board.

The main purpose of a motherboard is to provide the necessary electronic and logincal connections to connect the various components of the system. A typical desktop computer is built with a microprocessor, main memory and other essential components in its motherboard.

Apart from these many other ingredients; For example, external storage devices, video controllers, sound controllers, external input / output devices, etc., are connected to the motherboard through a connector or cable, although in computers most of these components are already found in the motherboard.


Sends data, instruction and information to various components of the computer and peripheral devices. Various buses are used for this movement. There are many buses in the computer which are used for different tasks. In other words, a bus is a store of some such wires or connections, through which signals are sent from one device to another. In fact, it is just a transmission medium.

Types of BUS

There are many buses in a computer, which can be divided into two parts.

  • Internal Bus
  • External Bus

Internal Bus

Combines the internal components of the motherboard; For example, CPU and System memory are also called System Bus; For example, control bus, address bus, etc.

The memory and input/output devices are carried by various instruction control buses. Input/output devices or memory are carried by the address bus.

The bus that transfers the data is called the data bus.

External Bus

Combines various external ingredients; Like- Peripheral, Ports, Expansion Slots etc.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q 1. MFS Stand For…..

Memory Function Complete

Q 2. CISC का पूरा नाम क्या है?

Complex Instruction Set Computing

Q 3. Specific Purpose Storage Location को क्या कहते है?


Q 4. Common Bus में कितने Register होते है?


Q 5. वह सर्किट जो 1 Bit Data को स्टोर करने के लिए उपयोग किया जाता है?


Q 6. Cache Memory किसके मध्य कार्य करती है?


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